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This article deals with the Spanish city. For other receptions, see Seville (disambiguation) .
Municipality , city and capital of Andalusia
From left to right and from top to bottom: the Giralda of the cathedral , the María Luisa park , the Torre del Oro , the Plaza de España , the courtyard of the maidens of the Alcázar , the Expo 92 site , the Triana bridge and the Metropol Parasol .
Sevilla ubicada en EspañaSevillaSeville
Location of Seville in Spain.
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Country Spain
• Comm. autonomous Andalusia
• Province Seville
• Shire Metropolitan area
• Judicial party Seville
Location 37°23′00″N 5°59′00″W
• Altitude 11 1​ m
(min: 0 2 ​, max: 72 2 ​)
Surface 141,42 km²
Population 681 998 ways. (2022)
• Density 4875.08 hab./km²
Demonym Sevillano, -a
Postal Code 41001-41020 and 41092
telephone preferences (+34) 954, 955, 854 and 855
Mayor (2023) Jose Luis Sanz ( PP )
Budget €1,158,000,000 3 ​( 2023)
twinned with
19 cities
Pattern San Fernando
Patroness Our Lady of the Kings 4
[ edit data on Wikidata
Seville is a municipality and a city in Spain , capital of the homonymous province and of Andalusia . 5 It had 681,998 inhabitants in 2022, 6 making it the most populous city in Andalusia , the fourth in Spain 7 after Madrid , Barcelona and Valencia and the 26th in the European Union . The municipality has an area of ​​141.4 km². 8​ The metropolitan area of ​​SevilleIt is made up of 46 municipalities, includes a population of 1,548,741 inhabitants (INE 2020) and occupies an area of ​​4,905.04 km². 9

Its old town , with 3.9 km², 10 is the largest in Spain and the sixth largest in Europe, after Rome (14.6 km²), 11 Naples (10.3 km²), 12 Venice (7.6 km²), 13 ​Florence (5.5 km²), 14​ and Genoa (4.1 km²). 15 Seville is one of the cities with the most cataloged monuments in Europe. Its historic quarter is one of the largest in Spain 16 (note the difference between the old quarter, which only includes the historic area prior to the Industrial Revolution, and historic center, which includes later stadiums). Its historical and monumental heritage and its various scenic and cultural spaces make it a receiving city for national and international tourism. It is the third city in Spain by number of visitors, after Barcelona and Madrid . Among its most representative monuments are the cathedral (which includes the Giralda ), the Alcázar , the Archivo de Indias and the Torre del Oro , the first three declared World Heritage Sites by Unesco in 1987. 17

It is the only inland city in Spain with a port , located about 90 km from the Atlantic Ocean , since the Guadalquivir River is navigable from its mouth in Sanlúcar de Barrameda to the city, although the size of the ships that access it is limited by a lock with a maximum draft of 8.5 m and the Centennial ring bridge limits the air draft to 42 m. 18 ​19

Seville has a well-developed road and rail transport network, as well as an international airport . The historical presence in the city of both the aeronautical industry and the military industry stands out.

With the celebration of the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929, the city experienced a great urban development marked by the creation of parks and the construction of buildings designed for said event, such as the María Luisa park or the Plaza de España . The Universal Exposition of 1992 left as a legacy in the city an important improvement of the infrastructure, mainly in terrestrial and aeronautical communications, among which the AVE rail access to the Santa Justa station stands out . Likewise, the 1992 Expo area houses the headquarters of the Cartuja Technological Park 93 , of theUniversity of Seville and the Isla Mágica theme and leisure park . Thanks to the diversification of its economy and its large technological industry, it is considered the economic and technological capital of the Andalusian autonomous community and, therefore, of southern Spain.

In 2014, the Torre Sevilla skyscraper was built on the Isla de la Cartuja , which was the subject of controversy due to its possible visual impact. 20​ 21​ That same year, the Seville Aquarium was built , in the Muelle de las Delicias . Part of the thematic tour of the aquarium is inspired by the Magellan-Elcano Expedition , which was the First Around the World. 22

The University of Seville , founded in 1505, has more than 65,000 students. 23 ​24​ Likewise, the Pablo de Olavide University has more than 10,000 students. Thousands of foreign students enroll in Erasmus programs and Spanish courses at the University of Seville, which in 2006 was one of the ten most visited in Europe along with eight other Spanish universities. 25

Seville has awakened since ancient times, and especially during the Romantic era , the inspiration of European artists, who see in it a picturesque and wonderful place. After the latest studies, a total of 153 operas set in this city have been counted , such as The Marriage of Figaro , Don Giovanni , The Barber of Seville , The Force of Destiny or Carmen . 26

An old theory from the 16th century derived the name of the city from a Phoenician word or from the indigenous Tartessian language Spal , which would mean "flat land". [ citation needed ] Most likely it comes from the Phoenician name Hisbaal , documented as a person's name in the Bible and other texts: Baal alludes to divinity, and Hisadmits various interpretations in Phoenician ("lives", "gift of", "male of"), so its original meaning could well have been "Gift of Baal", or else have taken the name of a character of Phoenician origin called Hisbaal that would have given its name to the port or to a castle in this place. 27 After the conquest, the Romans Latinized the place name first as Hispal and then as Hispalis , and even today it is common to hear "hispalense" as a name for Seville

During the Andalusian period , the name varied to Ishbīliya (in Arabic , إِشْبِيلِيَة), due to the replacement of / p / (phoneme non-existent in Arabic) by / b /, as well as from tonic / a / by / i /, a phenomenon characteristic of Andalusian Arabic known as imela . Hence the present form "Seville" would proceed. 28 Under Muslim rule the city was also known for a brief period as Hims al-Andalus (حمص الأندلس), named after the Syrian city of Hims (ancient Emesa ). 29 3031

Among the gypsies from Seville it is common, although less and less, to call it Serva la Barí ("Sevilla la Grande") or simply Serva , which is its name in Caló . 32 ​33


Flag of Seville
The motto of the city, present on numerous buildings, is " NO8DO ", where the 8 is shaped like a skein of wool. The Sevillian popular tradition reads it as «No madeja-do», which would mean «He has not left me»; it is a tradition without documentary basis and that has its origin in Argote de Molina (1588). The motto is interpreted as a supposed reference to the loyalty that the city maintained to Alfonso X the Wise in the war against his son De él Sancho in the 13th century . According to another interpretation proposed by Emilio Carrillo in 2005, the 8 would actually represent a knot , which is said "node" in Latin ; symbol of union around the monarch Alfonso X. 34​35

Also traditional to the city are the verses inscribed on the arch of the Puerta de Jerez , which, translated, summarize the history of Seville in this way: 36

Hercules built me ​​up,
Julio César surrounded me
with walls and high towers,
the Holy King defeated me
with Garci Pérez de Vargas. 37

Representation of the arms of Seville, in one of the tiles that decorate the Plaza de España
The coat of arms of Seville, although it comes with some varieties of designs and colors, has been maintained throughout history with a fundamental configuration in which the figures of King Ferdinand III of Castile are evoked, and that of the bishops . Hispano-Visigoths , Isidoro of Seville and Leandro of Seville . The last official arms chronicler of Spain, Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent , described it in the heraldic language as follows:

On a silver field, on a gules dais, seated on a golden throne, and surmounted by a purple canopy, a king dressed in purple and an ermine mantle, crowned with gold, with a sword in his right hand and a world in his sinister, accompanied by two bishops dressed in silver and gold, with miter and gold staff. At the top is the monogram "NO8DO" in gold.
Vicente de Cadenas, Heraldry of the Autonomous Communities and provincial capitals, p. 60, Ed. Hidalguía, Madrid, 1985, ISBN 840006047
She holds the titles of "Very Noble", "Very Loyal" (both from the Middle Ages ), "Very Heroic" (granted by Fernando VII in 1817), "Invicta" (by Isabel II , 1843) and "Mariana" (by Frank , 1946). 38

See also: Escudo de Sevilla , Flag of Seville , and Banner of the city of Seville .

Partial aerial view of the city with the port of Seville to the south
The municipal term of Seville is located in the province of Seville , belonging to the autonomous community of Andalusia , in the south of the Iberian Peninsula , on the left bank of the Guadalquivir river ; however, its Triana and Los Remedios neighborhoods occupy the right side of this navigable river that makes this city a fluvial port . In the surroundings of Seville there is a rich plain, as well as areas of countryside and marshland 39​ and two elevated areas that make up the Aljarafe region, closely linked to the city as it is the area of ​​residential expansion of Seville, to the west, and Los Alcores, to the east.

The municipal term of Seville, with an extension of 140.8 km², 8 is represented on sheets 984, 40 , 985 41 and 1002 42 of the National Topographic Map. It limits to the north with La Rinconada , La Algaba and Santiponce ; to the east with Carmona and Alcalá de Guadaíra ; to the south with Dos Hermanas and Gelves and to the west, San Juan de Aznalfarache , Tomares and Camas . 43

Northwest: Santiponce North: La Algaba and La Rinconada Northeast: La Rinconada
West: Camas , Tomares and San Juan de Aznalfarache East: Carmona and Alcalá de Guadaíra
Southwest : Gelves South: Gelves and Two Sisters Southeast: Alcalá de Guadaíra and Dos Hermanas

Guadalquivir River . In the background, the Torre Sevilla and the Torre Schindler observatory , on the island of La Cartuja
The city is located in the middle of the depression and alluvial plain of the Guadalquivir. Thus, the municipality is located on very flat and low-altitude terrain, with an average altitude of seven meters above sea level. 8 The maximum altitude of the municipality, in its eastern zone, in Vereda, is barely 72 m asl; On the other hand, despite the fact that Seville is not a coastal city, the last section of the Guadalquivir river and the Alfonso XIII canal in the municipality are practically at sea level. 2 The city center is located at 11 m asl. 1

The municipality of Seville is crossed on its western side by the Guadalquivir river , in whose hydrographic basin the entire province is integrated . It is located in the middle of the Guadalquivir valley , one of the three lithological units into which said basin is divided, in one of the last meanders that this river configures before entering the existing marsh area up to its mouth.

The Guadalquivir is the longest river in Andalusia and the fifth in the Iberian Peninsula , with a distance of 657 km. It is navigable through a main trunk of about 90 km in length, from its mouth to the Atlantic Ocean in Sanlúcar de Barrameda ( Cádiz ) to Seville, where the only fluvial port in Spain is located . 44

The eastern and southeastern part of Seville is bathed by three other river courses, tributaries or sub-tributaries of the Guadalquivir on its left bank. The most important of these is the Guadaíra River , which rises in the Pozo Amargo mountain range in Cádiz, runs through the extreme southeast of the municipality and flows into the Guadalquivir, 20 km downstream from the Sevillian urban area. The Tagarete and Tamarguillo streams complete the city's hydrographic network.

Seville is approximately in the center of the lower course of the Guadalquivir, which begins about 90 km upstream in the municipality of Palma del Río ( Córdoba ) and ends about 90 km downstream at the mouth of the river.

Changes in the Guadalquivir as it passes through Seville
As it passes through the city, the river has a remarkable flow, after having received contributions from all its large tributaries, including the Genil , which is its most important tributary and converges with it in the town of Palma del Río. At the gauging station installed in Seville, the Guadalquivir records an average flow of 197.6 m³/s, 45 much higher than the levels reached in the middle course (52.40 km³/s, in Marmolejo , Jaén ) 46 and in the upper course (15 m³/s, in the Puente de la Cerrada reservoir , in Torreperogil , downstream of the Tranco reservoir , Jaén). 47

The river presents a preferably pluvial hydrological regime, which determines strong variations in its flow. These were visible in Seville, with low water levels below 10 m³/s and floods of 5,000 and 9,000 m³/s, with recurrence periods of 5 and 100 years, respectively. At present, the oscillations have decreased significantly thanks to the regulation to which the entire river basin is subjected. 48

Added to the irregularity of this hydrological regime is the location of Seville on an alluvial plain , in the middle of the flood zone, which has historically conditioned the urban layout of the city. The natural course of the river has been modified by infrastructures aimed at preventing large avenues. Before the current regulation, the floods raised the waters to a level between 7 and 10 m and the lowest areas of the city, such as the Alameda de Hércules , are located at a level of only 4.30 m, 48​ above the which was the bed of a secondary branch of the river, blocked up in the Visigothic period, and dried up in the 16th century .

View from the Giralda towards the south, with the port area and the V Centenario bridge in the background
Important interventions have been carried out in the riverbed throughout the 19th and 20th centuries seeking both to improve navigability and satisfy the needs of the port, as well as to reduce the effect of the river's floods on the population, which have consisted of its most of it in rectifications of the route in the channel, eliminating curves and in the erection of dikes that have reduced the length of the Guadalquivir by almost 40 km. 48 This is the case of the works carried out in 1950, through which the active channel was diverted to the west and a dock was built on the original one.

The municipal hydrographic network of the left bank of the Guadalquivir, made up of the Tagarete and Tamarguillo streams, and the Guadaíra river , also characterized by a highly irregular regime, has also been altered . The first was of great defensive importance during the Middle Ages , as it delimited the eastern flank of the city outside the walls up to its confluence with the Guadalquivir, near the Torre del Oro . Its course has been successively modified, progressively moving it away from the urban center and turning it into a direct tributary of the Tamarguillo. 49 In the Miraflores park, located to the north of Seville, part of the original channel of the Tagarete stream has been reconstructed.

For its part, the Tamarguillo ran in an east-west direction through the southern and eastern parts of the urban center and was channeled by diverting its course north of the historic center, which has allowed the expansion of the city to the east, with the creation of new avenues such as the Ronda del Tamarguillo, built on one of the old channels of this current. 50


Climogram of Seville. Data from the airport observatory
The climate of Seville is typical Mediterranean (type Csa ), with variable rainfall, dry and very hot summers and mild and often rainy winters that concentrate more than half of the annual rainfall. According to the Köppen climate classification , it corresponds to a Csa climate. 51 The average annual temperature is 19.2 °C , the highest in continental Europe [ citation needed ] . January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 11.0 °C; and July is the hottest month, with an average temperature of 28.2 °C. 52​ 40 °C is exceeded several times a year. 53Due to its average summer temperatures, it is the hottest provincial capital in Spain. 54

Rainfall, with an average of 538.8 mm per year, is concentrated between October and April; December being the rainiest month, with 99 mm. There is an average of 51 rainy days a year, 2918 hours of sunshine and 3 days of frost. 52