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For other uses of this term, see Moscow .
Federal capital of Russia

The Kremlin and Red Square , the Cathedral of Christ the Savior , the Bolshoi Theater , the State University , the International Business Center and the Moskva River

Other names : Third Rome , Port of the Five Seas , City of the Golden Domes
Anthem : Moya Moskva
( Russian : "My Moscow")
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Moscow located in European RussiaMoscowMoscow
Location of Moscow in Russia
Moscow located in RussiaMoscowMoscow
Location of Moscow in Russian Federation
MapWikimedia | © OpenStreetMap
Interactive map — Moscow and its municipal area

Moscow location
coordinates 55°45′21″N 37°37′04″E
Entity Federal capital of Russia
• Country Russian flag Russia
• Federal District Central
• Economic region Center
Mayor Sergei Sobyanin
Historical events September 1147 _
• Foundation by Yuri Dolgoruky
• Total 3072 km²
• Media 156 m s. n. m.
Climate Wet Continental Dfb
Water course Moskva River
Population (2021)
• Total 25 121 000 ways. 1
• Density 8177.40 hab/km²
Demonym Muscovite
Time zone Moscow Time , UTC+03:00 and Europe/Moscow
Postal Code 101001–135999
Telephone prefix 495, 499 and 095
Tuition 77, 97, 99, 177, 197, 199, 777 and 799
ISO 3166-2 RU-MOW
ОКАТО code Four. Five
Festivals First Saturday and Sunday of September 2
twinned with See sister cities
Employer Saint George
Official Web site
[ edit data on Wikidata
Moscow ( Russian : Москва́ , AFI: [mɐˈskva] ( listen ) , transliterated as Moskvá ) is the capital and the most populous federal entity of Russia . The city is an important political, economic, cultural and scientific center of Russia and the continent. Moscow is the northernmost megacity on Earth and the most populous city in Europe . n 1 ​3 ​4​ Its population is 12 108 257 5inhabitants. By virtue of its territorial expansion to the southwest of Moscow Oblast , on July 1, 2012 the capital increased its area by 2.5 times, from about 1,000 km² to 2,500 km², and gained an additional population of 230,000. 6

Moscow is located on the banks of the Moskva River , in the Central Federal District of European Russia . In the course of its history, the city has been the capital of a succession of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow , the Russian Tsarate , and the Soviet Union , excepting the period of the Russian Empire . In Moscow is the Moscow Kremlin , a former fortress where the workplace of the President of Russia is today . The Kremlin is also one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.7 Both houses of the Russian Parliament (the State Duma and the Federation Council ) also have their headquarters in Moscow.

The city has an extensive transportation network that includes three international airports, nine railway stations, and one of the deepest metro systems in the world, the Moscow Metro , second only to Tokyo in number of passengers. Its suburban is recognized as one of the richest and most architecturally varied in its 215 stations, spread throughout the city. According to the Forbes 2017 publication , Moscow is the fourth city in the world in number of billionaires, and the first in Europe. 8

The name of the city comes from the river that runs through it, called Moskva ( Moskvá ; Old Russian : град Москов [Grad Moskov] , literally the city of the Moskva River ).

The origin of the name is unknown, although there are several theories. 9 One of them suggests that the origin of the name comes from an old Finnish language, in which it means "dark" and "murky". The first Russian reference to Moscow dates from 1147 , when Yuri Dolgoruky exhorted the prince of the Novgorod Republic : "Come to me, brother, to Moscow" ( Приди ко мне, брате, в Москов ) [ Pridi ko mne, brate, v Moscow ]. 10

Main article: History of Moscow
Middle Ages
The first Russian reference to Moscow dates from 1147 with Yuri Dolgoruky ( Юрий Долгорукий ). Nine years later, in 1156 , Prince Yuri Dolgoruky of Rostov ordered the construction of a palisade surrounding the citadel, which had to be rebuilt several times. After the sack of 1237-1238 , in which the Mongols burned the city and killed its inhabitants, Moscow recovered and became the capital of an independent principality, the Principality of Moscow , in 1327 . 12 Its favorable position at the head of the Volga Rivercontributed to its constant expansion. Muscovy was a stable country and a prosperous principality for many years, attracting large numbers of refugees from several surrounding principalities.

Ivan I replaced the city of Tver as the political center of the Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal and became the sole tax collector for the Tatar - Mongol rulers , after the Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus . Ivan won an important concession from the khan by paying large tributes. Unlike other principalities, Moscow was not divided among his sons, which kept it intact. However, Moscow's opposition to foreign domination grew. In 1380 , the Moscow prince Dmitri Donskoi led the Russian army in a major victory over the Tatars at theBattle of Kulikovo which, however, was not decisive. Only two years later, Moscow was sacked by the Toqtamish Khan . In 1480 , Ivan III finally ended Tatar rule, allowing Moscow to become the center of power in Russia. 13 After the reign of Ivan III , the city became the capital of the Russian Tsarate that would eventually encompass all of present-day Russia and other lands.

Modern Age
In 1571, the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything except the Kremlin. 14

In 1609, the Swedish army , led by Count Jacob de la Gardie and Evert Horn, began its march from Velikiy Novgorod towards Moscow to assist Tsar Basil IV of Russia ; they entered Moscow in 1610 and put down the rebellion against the tsar, but left the city at the beginning of the year 1611, after which it was invaded by the army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth .

The 17th century was rich in popular uprisings, such as the one that led to the liberation of Moscow from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1612), the Salt Revolt (1648), the Copper Revolt (1662) or the Moscow Revolt. in 1682 . From 1654 to 1656 the plague killed half the population of Moscow. 15 The city ceased to be the capital of Russia in 1712, after the founding of Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great on the Baltic Sea coast in 1703.

Contemporary Age

Napoleon commanding the Grande Armée in the 1812 fire of Moscow . Painting by Adam Albrecht (1841).
On September 14, 1812, as Napoleon's invading forces approached Moscow, the Muscovites burned down and evacuated the city. Napoleon 's army , plagued by starvation, cold, and poor supply lines, was forced to retreat and was almost completely wiped out by the devastating Russian winter and sporadic attacks by Russian military forces.

In January 1905, the institution of the city governor, or mayor, was officially created in Moscow; the first mayor of Moscow was Aleksandr Adrianov . On March 12, 1918, following the Russian Revolution of 1917 , Moscow became the capital of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and five years later, of the Soviet Union .

During the Great Patriotic War (the name given in Russia to combat on the Eastern Front of World War II , after the German invasion of the USSR ), the Soviet State Defense Committee and the Red Army General Staff had their headquarters in Moscow.

In 1941, sixteen of the national volunteer divisions (more than 160,000 people), twenty-five battalions (18,500 people) and four engineering regiments were formed among Muscovites. In November, the German Army Group Center was stopped on the outskirts of the city and then driven out in the course of the Battle of Moscow . Many factories were evacuated, along with much of the government, and as of October 20, the city was declared under a state of siege. The rest of its inhabitants built anti-tank defenses , while the city was bombarded from the air. It is to be noted that Stalin refused to leave the city, which meant that the general staff and theCouncil of People's Commissars to remain in the city. Despite the siege and shelling, construction of the Moscow metro continued throughout the war, and new metro lines were opened at the end of the war.

On May 1, 1944, the Medal for the Defense of Moscow was instituted, and in 1947 another medal In memory of the 800th anniversary of the founding of Moscow . On May 8, 1965, commemorating the 20th anniversary of the victory in World War II, Moscow was one of twelve Soviet cities awarded the title of Hero City . In 1980, it hosted the Summer Olympics , which were boycotted by the United States and other Western countries due to the War in Afghanistan .

In 1991, Moscow was the scene of an attempted coup by members of the government and the KGB opposed to Mikhail Gorbachev 's reforms . After the dissolution of the USSR that occurred that same year, Moscow continued to be the capital of the Russian Federation .

Since then, the rise of a market economy in the country has produced an explosion of Western lifestyle, retail and services. In 1998, the first World Youth Games were organized.

In 2018 Moscow and 10 other Russian cities hosted the Soccer World Championship . Important sports and infrastructure facilities were built for this event in the city.

Political-administrative division
Main article: Political-administrative division of Moscow

Administrative districts of Moscow.
The city of Moscow is governed by a mayor . The current mayor is Sergei Sobyanin (elected in 2013). Moscow is divided into 12 administrative districts ( ókrugs , it is an organization very similar to that of Vienna ), 125 districts, and 21 settlements. All ókrugs have their coat of arms and flag. Almost all of them have their own television station.

Moscow is the center of Russian political power. The Kremlin is located in the heart of the city, in the central okrug . There is the official residence of the president of Russia and numerous military barracks. In Moscow there are embassies of foreign countries.