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Angora" redirects here. For other uses, see Angora (disambiguation) .
For the eponymous province, see Ankara Province .
For the asteroid, see (1457) Ankara .
capital of turkey

Motto : Türkiye'nin Kalbi
("The Heart of Turkey")
Ankara is located in TürkiyeAnkaraAnkara
Location of Ankara in Türkiye

Ankara location
coordinates 39°56′09″N 32°50′19″E
Entity capital of turkey
• Country Turkey flag Türkiye
• Region Anatolia Central
• Province Ankara
Mayor Mansur Yavaş ( CHP )
• Total 2.516 km²
• Media 938 m s. n. m.
Population (2019) 1
• Total 5 639 076 method.
• Density 1775.34 hab/km²
Demonym angorense, —a
angorino, —a 2
Time zone EAT
• in summer FOR
Postal Code 06000–06999
Telephone prefix 312
Tuition 06
Official Web site
[ edit data on Wikidata
Ankara (traditionally in Spanish Angora ) 3 is the capital of Turkey and of the homonymous province in the Central Anatolia region .

It has a population of 5,270,575 inhabitants, 1 which makes it the second most populous city in the country after Istanbul . It is the seat of the Turkish parliament , ministries and other government institutions, as well as foreign diplomatic delegations .

It is an important commercial and industrial city located in central Anatolia . It is strategically located at the center of the Turkish highway and railway networks , and functions as a center for marketing the products of the surrounding agricultural areas. 4 The city was famous for its long-haired goats ( angora goats ) and its precious wool ( mohair ), for its unique breed of cats ( angora cats ), for its white rabbits , for its pears , its honey and for the muscatel grape that is produced in the region.

It is home to several universities, the National Library, the Archaeological Museum, the Ethnographic Museum and the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations . The mausoleum of Kemal Atatürk ( Anıtkabir ), Turkey's most important figure in the 20th century , is also located in Ankara.

As with many ancient cities, Ankara has been known by various names through the centuries: the Hittites called it Ankuwash before 1200 BC. C., 5 ​6​ the Galatians and the Romans called it Ancyra and in the classical , Hellenistic and Byzantine periods it was known as Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra). 7 It also received the name of Angora or Engürü after being conquered by the Seljuks in 1073, and was known as such until 1930. 7

Etymology and origin of the name
The name comes from the Greek Ánkyra ( Ἄγκυρα ) literally "anchor", transliterated into Latin as Ancyra . 8 9 The coins of the city usually carry an anchor as an emblem on the reverse and a local legend attributed the name to the finding of an anchor by King Midas . 9

Some researchers have speculated with the identification of Ancyra with the Hittite sanctuary called Ankuwaš , 1011 but it remains a hypothesis to be proven. 12

The name of the city changed to Ankara, Engürü and Enguriye after the arrival of the Seljuk Turks in Anatolia and passed into Western languages ​​as Angora.

The official form today, Ankara, written انقره in Arabic characters , appears in official Ottoman documents belonging to the 16th century . 13 The Republic of Turkey formally requested on March 28, 1930, that foreign countries use Turkish names to refer to cities in their territory, 14 after that date, the postal administration did not deliver letters addressed to Angora to Ankara , 15 whereby the use of Ankara became universal.

Pre-Roman period

The Hatti sun disk is a religious symbol, symbolizing the universe, used by Hittite priests. The Hittite language is the oldest known Indo-European language.
The oldest settlements in and around the city belong to the Hattian civilization, both of which thrived during the Bronze Age . Artifacts discovered in the city have revealed that the Hittites called the city Ankuwash before 1200 BC. C. 5 6 The city grew significantly in size and importance under the control of the Phrygians , from around 1000 BC. C., experiencing a great expansion after the migration from Gordión , the capital of Phrygia , after an earthquake that seriously damaged the city. According to Phrygian tradition, King Midashe was revered as the founder of Ancyra. However, Pausanias mentions that the city was actually older. 16 It is possible that when Midas arrived in the city, it was practically uninhabited and hence the origin of the Phrygian legend. Phrygian rule was succeeded by Lydian and later by Persian rule, which remained until they were defeated by Macedonian troops led by Alexander the Great .

Hatti bronze animal figures in Museum of Anatolian Civilizations and the copy of the sculpture in the city.
The Macedonian king, who conquered the city in 333 B.C. C., came from Gordion and stayed in the city for a short period. After his death in Babylon in 323 B.C. C. and the subsequent division of his empire among his generals, Ankara came under the control of Antigonus the One-Eyed . If during the Phrygian period the city had the greatest expansion of its ancient times, another important period of growth took place during the period of the Pontic Greeks , who arrived and developed the city as a center for the trade of goods between the sea ports . Black and Crimea to the north; Assyria , Cyprus , and Lebanon to the south; andGeorgia , Armenia , and Persia to the east. At that time the city took the name of Áγκυρα-Ànkyra ( anchor in Greek ), which is still used by the Turks with the slightly modified form of Ankara.

In the year 278 a. C., the city, which was then known as Ancyra, as well as the rest of central Anatolia, was occupied by the Galatians , a Celtic people . The Celtic elements were probably small in number, a warrior aristocracy that ruled over the Phrygian-speaking peasantry. However, as time went on they adopted the language of the Celts , related to Gaelic and Welsh . At the end of the fourth century , Saint Jerome , a native of Galatia , observed that the language spoken in Ankara was very similar to that spoken in Trier , in the northwest of the Roman Empire .

Roman period

From the viii and v centuries a. C., various Celtic peoples spread from their original Central European core throughout much of Europe, arriving a people originally from Gaul .
The city was 17 conquered by Augustus in 25 BC. C., thus passing to the control of the Roman Empire . So, he decided to make Ancyra one of the three main administrative centers of central Anatolia. At the time, the city was the center of a tribe known as the Tectosages , and Augustus elevated it to the capital of the Roman province of Galatia. Other Galatian tribal centers, such as Tavium , near Yozgat , and Pessinus to the west, near Sivrihisar, continued to be relatively important during the Roman period, but it was Ancyra that developed into a great city. In Ankara are the remains of the Temple of Augustus and Rome (Monumentum Ancyranum ), which contains the official record of the Augustan Laws, known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti , a marble inscription on the walls of this temple.

En el Templo de Augusto y Roma (commonly known as Monumentum Ancyranum ) en Ulus, sobreviva intacta la principal copia de la Res Gestae Divi Augusti , escrita por el primer emperador romano Augusto .
An estimated 200,000 people lived in Ancyra during the prosperous days of the Roman Empire, far more than would remain after the fall of the empire until the 20th century . 18 A small river, the Ankara (Ankara Çayı, in Turkish), ran through the center of the Roman population. Today it is covered and diverted in part of its course through the city, but in its time it was the northern border of the old city, during the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman eras. Çankaya, the edge of the hill south of the present urban center, was outside the Roman city, but may have been a summer resort. in the 19th century, the remains of at least one Roman villa or large hamlet still stood, not far from where the Çankaya presidential residence now stands. It was a large city for the time, larger than the Roman cities of Gaul or Britain . To the west, the Roman city extended as far as the area of ​​Gençlik Park and the railway station, while on the southern side of the hill it may have extended as far as the area occupied by Hacettepe University .

The importance of Ancyra lay in the fact that it was located at the point where the Roman roads that crossed Anatolia from north to south and from east to west met. The imperial network of causeways to the east was used by various emperors and their armies , although it also served for invading armies. In the second half of the 3rd century , Ancyra was invaded by the Goths who came from the west, settling in the heart of Cappadocia , seizing slaves and looting , and later by the Arabs . For almost a decade, the city was one of the westernmost outposts of the Arab empress.Zenobia of Palmyra , who took advantage of a period of weakness and disorder in the Roman Empire to found her own, short-lived state. The town was reincorporated into the Roman Empire under Emperor Aurelian in 272. During the Tetrarchy , introduced by Diocletian in 284, a rebuilding program was undertaken and the Ankara causeway was built to the west, towards Germe and Dorylaeum , near the current Eskişehir . Previously, Emperor Caracalla had rebuilt the citadel walls and built public baths . 18​

Ankara Castle was used by the Romans , Byzantines , Seljuks , and Ottomans .
In its heyday, Roman Ankara was a great market and center of commerce, though it also functioned as a large administrative capital, where a high official ruled from the city's Praetorium , a large administrative palace or office. During the 3rd century , life in the city, as in other Anatolian towns, seems to have been militarized in response to invasions and prevailing instability. Likewise, the local population was subject to Christianization .

Byzantine period
At the end of the 4th century , Ancyra became a holiday area for the empire. After Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire , the emperors of the 4th and 5th centuries retreated from the humid summers of the Bosporus to the dry environment of the Ancyra mountains. Theodosius II carried court from him to Ancyra in the summers, laws were even issued there.

The city's military and logistical importance lasted well into the long Byzantine reign. Although the city fell into the hands of various Arab armies numerous times beginning in the 6th century , it remained an important point in the Byzantine Empire until the end of the 11th century .

Ottoman period

Ankara miniature in the 18th century .
In 1071, the Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan opened the gates of Anatolia for the Turks with his victory at the Battle of Manzikert , near Mancicerta . Two years later he annexed the city to his territory, an important location for military transportation. Orhan I , the second bey of the Ottoman Empire , captured Ankara in 1356. Another Turkish ruler, Tamerlane , defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Angora in 1402 and captured the city, but the following year Ankara returned to Ottoman control.

Following the Ottoman defeat in World War I , the Ottoman capital, Istanbul , and much of the Anatolian peninsula were occupied by the Allies . According to the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres signed by the United Kingdom , France , Italy and Greece , the territories of the Ottoman Empire would be divided between them, leaving Istanbul and part of Asia Minor for the Turks . In response to this, the leader of the Turkish nationalist movement, Kemal Atatürk , established his resistance movement's headquarters in Ankara. After the War of Independence, the nationalists replaced the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923.

Republic of Turkey period

Anitkabir is the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk , the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey .

Atatürk in the city in 1930
At the time of the founding of the Republic of Turkey, Ankara was no more than a small town of just over 15,000 inhabitants. Despite this, on October 13, 1923, it became the new capital of the country, replacing Istanbul , at the end of the liberation war and two weeks before the proclamation of the republic by a law adopted in the Grand National Assembly. Turca , 19 and based on a decree read in parliament on January 31, 1921, 20 according to a source, it was a personal decision of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk , who thus avoided the strategic vulnerability of the old capital. 21

Söğütözü , is the commercial center of the city.
The new development subsequent to having obtained the capital divided the city into the old area, called Ulus, and the new one, called Yenişehir. The old buildings, which reflect Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman history, and the narrow winding streets characterize the old area. For its part, the new area, centered around Kızılay , in the Çankaya district , has the appearance of a modern city: wide streets, hotels , theaters , shopping centers and skyscrapers . Government offices and foreign embassies are also located in the new part.

Geography and climate
Ankara is situated on a steep and rocky hill, rising 150 meters above the plain on the left bank of the Ankara Çayı , a tributary of the Sakarya River . The city is located in one of the driest places in Turkey, surrounded by steppe vegetation, due to the harsh and sometimes extreme dry continental climate with very cold winters with abundant precipitation in the form of snow and very hot dry summers. , the rainy season occurs mainly during spring and autumn. According to the Köppen climate classification , Ankara has a continental Mediterranean climate (Dsa) and a cold semi-arid climate (BSk)